About Ethiopia

About Ethiopia


The state is located in northeast Africa (in the Horn of Africa). Borders on Eritrea, Djibouti, Somalia, Kenya, South Sudan and Sudan. It has no access to the sea.

Territory - 1.104 million square km/ The total borders length is 5328 km.

Population - 99.873 million people, the level of urbanization does not exceed 21%. The average density is 87.7 people per 1 square km/ The annual population growth is 2.8%.

There are about 80 nationalities and ethnic groups that speak the languages and dialects of the Semitic-Hamitic, Cushite and Nilotic groups. The most numerous of them, according to the 2007 census, are Oromo (34.5%), Amhara (26.9%), Somalis (6.2%), Tigrians (6.1%), Sidamo (4 %), Gurage (2.5%), Wolaita (2.3%), Afar (1.7%).

The official language is Amharic, English is also widespoken.

The main religions are monophysite-style Christianity (43% of the population), Catholicism and Protestant movements (15%), Islam - mostly Sunni-style (over 40% of the population) and traditional religious cults (about 3%).

Administrative and territorial structure - nine regions formed mainly on the ethnic principle: Afar, Amhara, Benishangul-Gumuz, Gambela, Harari, Oromia, Somalia, Tigray, Southern nations, nationalities and peoples. Two cities have a special status - Addis Ababa and Dire-Dawa.

The capital is the city of Addis Ababa (more than 5 million people).

The currency is the Ethiopian birr (1 USD is approximately 31.88 EBT; 1 Euro = 35.47 ETB).

National holiday - Victory Day of Democratic Forces - May 28 (celebrated since 1991).

The state system is a federal republic.

The form of government is a parliamentary republic.

The Prime Minister, Abiy Ahmed Ali (Oromo), has real power. The President - Sahlework Zewde (Amhara) - was elected by the Parliament in October 2018 for a 6-year term, and representative powers.

The Parliament consists of two chambers - the House of Federation (110 deputies, elected by the regional councils; speaker - Keria Ibrahim) and the House of People’s representatives (547 deputies, elected by direct vote for 5 years; speaker - Tagesse Chafo). The next election is scheduled for 2020.

Three out of four political parties of the ruling coalition, the Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front, merged in 2019 and formed the new Prosperity Party.

Armed forces - 235 thousand people (ground forces and air force).

Socio-economic situation. Despite the fast pace of development, Ethiopia is among the poorest countries in the world according to the UNDP. According to UN WFP, from 3 to 5 million people suffer from food shortages in Ethiopia.

In 2019, the inflation rate is about 10%, in 2018, real GDP is 73.2 billion US dollars. In the structure of GDP, 36.4% is accounted for byagriculture, 47% by the services sector and 16.6% by industry. Foreign trade turnover in the 2017/2018 fiscal year was about 17 billion US dollars (export - about 2.5 billion US dollars, import - about 14.5 billion US dollars).

The basis of the economy is agriculture, which provides over 90% of foreign exchange earnings and where 85% of the working-age population are employed. The country grows coffee, cereals, oilseeds, legumes, flowers, produces meat, skins and leather. In livestock breeding cattle, as well as sheep, goats, and camels, predominate. The industry provides about 10% of export earnings. The main industries are leather and footwear, textile, food, and construction.

Transport. There are four international airports (Addis Ababa, Mekele, Dire-Dawa, Bahr-Dar). A modern railway has been built connecting Addis Ababa with the capital of the neighboring state of Djibouti. The length of asphalt and dirt roads is over 50 thousand km. With the support of the EU, China, Japan, South Korea and other countries, Ethiopia is actively building new roads.

International trade. In the field of foreign trade, the government is taking measures to increase exports and diversify them. Sales of mining products (gold, tantalum, marble) abroad are increasing. More than 40% of export go to European countries, less than a third to the Middle and Far East, and about a fourth to Africa. Oil and oil products, machinery, metal and metal products, mineral fertilizers, food, medicines are imported. The main trading partners are China, Sudan, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, India, the USA, Italy, Germany, Turkey, Djibouti, Belgium, Malaysia, Japan.

Education. Primary education enrollment varies from 15% (in the Afar and Somalia regions) to 80% (Addis Ababa). The country has 32 thousand primary and secondary schools, 34 universities. The quality of education is generally low. Adult literacy among women is 35%, among men is 50%.

Healthcare. 46% of the population have access to basic health care services. HIV / AIDS (the number of infected people is about 1.5 million), tuberculosis, and malaria are widespread.